Phyllanthus amarus is an annual herb 60 to 75 cm tall, quite glabrous.
Root is stout and woody and stems are often branched at base and angular.
Leaves are numerous, sub-sessile, disticthious, stipulate and paripinnate with small leaflets.
The leaflets are oblong, having nerve obscure and base rounded.
Root is stout tortuous and woody.
The plant grows in tropical and subtropical climate over well drained sandy -loam soil for its luxurious growth.
PLANTING IN THE FIELD
Land Preparation and Fertilizer Application: The soil should be ploughed, harrowed and plucked and made into a fine tilth. 20 tonnes of FYM is applied during land preparation. For nursery beds, farm yard manure at the rate of 10 t/ha is mixed in the soil along with 100 gm Azospirillum + 100 gm Phosphobacteria + 100 gm Trichoderma as basal medium. In main field 25-30 t/ha of FYM is applied as a basal medium + 2.5 kg Azospirillum + 2.5 kg Phosphobacteria is given before transplantation.
Transplanting and Optimum Spacing: 15-20 days old seedlings of 8-10 cm height are transplanted at 30 cm distance in rows in the field immediately after the first monsoon shower. If there is no rain; the field should be irrigated immediately after transplantation. For one hectare area about 4.0 lacs seedlings are needed at an optimum spacing of 25X25 cm.
Interculture and Maintenance Practices: The crop needs hand weeding at 30 and 60 days interval after planting.
Irrigation: Irrigation is required during dry season if monsoon rains is scanty. The frequency of irrigation depends on the moisture content of soil.
Disease and Pest Control: Powdery mildew disease occurs during rainy season. This is controlled by spraying biopesticides like Azadirachtin, Trichoderma viridie, Pseudomonas cholotorapsis etc.